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The IEP must contain individualized curriculum and instruction or general curriculum with adaptations or modifications made, or a combination of both

  • modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student.

  • accommodation means a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability

  • Special education, services, and supports


(3) Specially designed instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction—


(i) To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and


(ii) To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children. [§300.39(b)(3)]


Presentation accommodations:

Large print

Magnification devices

Sign language


Tactile graphics

Aide readers

Audiotape or CD

Audio amplification devices

Text readers


Chunking of materials


Response accommodations:

Dictation/ Scribe

Oral response

Word processor

Tape recorder

ACC/ a communication device


Native language response

Use of sign language

Responding in test booklet not on answer sheet

Monitoring placement of answer sheet responses


Spelling and grammar devices


Setting accommodations:

Reduce distractions (auditory, movement and visual)

Physical access or use of special equipment

Extra time

Small group

One to one



Extended time

Multiple or frequent breaks

Change schedule or order of activities



The U.S. Department of Education defines Special Education as Specially Designed Instruction and Related Services.


Supports Provided in Language Arts Classes./ OSEP / Report to Congress


  • 61.9% are provided extra time to take tests or complete assignments.

  • 36.8% are given shorter or different assignments.

  • 35.3% have tests read to them.

  • 33.4% take modified tests.

  • 33.3% receive feedback more frequently than other children.

  • 30.4% receive slower-paced instruction.

  • .7% are provided physical adaptations.

  • Progress monitored by special education teacher: 51.9%

  • Teacher aides, instructional assistants, or other personal aides: 27.5%

  • Learning strategies/study skills: 24.2%

  • Peer tutor: 22.9%

  • Books on tape: 14.5%

  • Use of computer for activities not allowed other children: 11.2%

  • Reader or interpreter: 10.3%

  • Behavior management program: 9.8%

  • Communication aids: 3.2%


26th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Vol. 1).

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

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